Merge Sort is based on Divide & Conquer Algorithm. It divides array in two & calls itself for the two halves and then merges the two sorted halves. Most of the implementations produce a stable sort, which means that the implementation preserves the input order of equal elements in the sorted output.

Algorithm:
Merge sort Algorithm keeps dividing the list into equal halves until it can no more be divided. If there is only one element in the list, it is sorted. Then, merge sort combines the smaller sorted lists keeping the new list sorted too.

Step 1 − if it is only one element in the list it is already sorted, return.
Step 2 − divide the list recursively into two halves until it can no more be divided.
Step 3 − merge the smaller lists into new list in sorted order.

PseudoCode:

procedure mergesort( var a as array )
   if ( n == 1 ) return a

   var l1 as array = a[0] ... a[n/2]
   var l2 as array = a[n/2+1] ... a[n]

   l1 = mergesort( l1 )
   l2 = mergesort( l2 )

   return merge( l1, l2 )
end procedure

procedure merge( var a as array, var b as array )

   var c as array

   while ( a and b have elements )
      if ( a[0] > b[0] )
         add b[0] to the end of c
         remove b[0] from b
      else
         add a[0] to the end of c
         remove a[0] from a
      end if
   end while
   
   while ( a has elements )
      add a[0] to the end of c
      remove a[0] from a
   end while
   
   while ( b has elements )
      add b[0] to the end of c
      remove b[0] from b
   end while
   
   return c
	
end procedure

Merge Sort

Merge Sort